17.02.2021קורס ביוטכנולוגיה מפגש 10
X–ray crystallography (XRC) is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X–rays to diffract into many specific directions.
X–ray crystallography is a tool used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal. The underlying principle is that the crystalline atoms cause a beam of X–rays to diffract into many specific directions
ABSTRACT. Rosalind Franklin’s X–ray diffraction patterns of DNA molecules rendered the important clue that DNA has the structure of a double helix
Protein X–ray crystallography is a technique used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of a particular protein by x–ray diffraction of its crystallized form. … Making crystals creates a lattice in which this technique aligns millions of proteins molecules together to make the data collection more sensitive.
William Lawrence Bragg was only 25 when he won the 1915 Nobel Prize in physics, and remains the youngest person ever to win the Nobel Prize. Considered the father of X-ray crystallography, he was the first (together with his father) to use X-rays to determine the arrangement of atoms in simple crystals.
Cryo electron microscopy
Cryoelectron microscopy is a method for imaging frozen-hydrated specimens at cryogenic temperatures by electron microscopy. Specimens remain in their native state without the need for dyes or fixatives, allowing the study of fine cellular structures, viruses and protein complexes at molecular resolution
The EMDB curates structures solved with other microscopy methods, but the vast majority use cryo–EM. The technique involves flash-freezing solutions of proteins or other biomolecules and then bombarding them with electrons to produce microscope images of individual molecules
One of the biggest advantages of cryo–electron microscopy is that very small samples are actually required for the determination of its structure. Compared to other microscopy techniques, cry-electron microscopy still produces good images (as long as the sample is in good condition)..
The electromagnetic Spectrum:סוגי קרינה.
Types of ionizing radiation: alpha particle, gamma radiation, beta particle